Although situations differ across MS, in general men seemed to be most severely hit in early years of the European crisis. Available data show that their unemployment rose by 3.8% from 2007 to 2012, compared to 2.6% for women. A difference which experts link most specifically to the sectoral structure of EU labour markets. As an immediate effect of the contracting output, lay-offs were most present in male-dominated sectors: the construction and industrial sector (manufacturing). Whilst unemployment rates of European men and women for 2012 are close to equal (10.4% to 10.5%), the average percentage point increase in unemployment over the crisis shows a more significant difference (Δ3.8 to Δ2.6).