The end of the Cold War and the 2001 terrorist attacks in the USA changed the face of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The alliance has developed, with interventions both within and outside Europe (the Balkans, Afghanistan, the African Horn, and Sub-Saharan Africa). More recently, the alliance has increasingly organised exercises in Europe, in order to reassure its members in the face of military build-up to the East of its borders.
Since the 1990s, NATO has developed new security dimensions, such as cybersecurity, and military missions outside Europe. Nevertheless, growing threats in NATO’s neighbourhood, in Ukraine, Syria, or Libya, push NATO members to reinvest in the field of territorial protection.