EPRS Admin By / May 6, 2022

Discrimination based on ethnic or immigrant background

Discrimination based on ethnic or immigrant background in different areas of life in the 12 months before the survey, by survey targets (%)

Discrimination based on ethnic or immigrant background in different areas of life in the 12 months before the survey, by survey targets (%)

The areas in which the respondents felt they suffered discrimination differed considerably by ethnic group (see Figure 2). A quarter of the respondents of African descent had felt discriminated against while looking for work. The highest levels were observed in Luxembourg (47 %), Austria and Italy (both 46 %). Of the respondents aged 16 to 24, 18 % were neither employed nor in education or training, with large differences between countries. The highest levels were found in Austria (76 %, compared with the national average of 8 %), Malta (70 %, national average of 8 %) and Italy (42 %, national average of 20 %). The percentage of respondents with tertiary education, who were working in an elementary occupation, was nearly twice as high as for the general population (9 % compared with 5 %). In general, comparing the employment rates of the respondents of African descent to those of the general population, large distinctions could be seen, with a differentiation of up to 36 percentage points in Denmark (41 % of employed respondents of African descent compared with 77 % of employed respondents from the general population). This means that, in combination with the discrimination faced in education (the latter being generally necessary to attain higher paid employment), the racial factor can limit a person’s options and expectations on the job market, which in turn limits their social and economic growth.


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