EPRS Admin By / June 16, 2021

normandy index 2021

Normandy Index, 2021

Normandy Index, 2021

The modern definition of peace refers not only to ‘an absence of war’, but also includes elements of wellbeing: we demand more from peace. This positive dimension of peace is difficult to measure, as it is a continuum between inter-state war and positive public perceptions. The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) argues that this continuum includes international (i.e. wars, hybrid conflicts) and intra-national violence (i.e. gang or police violence, forced displacements). Therefore, any measure of peace has to take numerous dimensions into account. For example, the IEP ‘Positive Peace Index’ (PPI) takes 24 indicators into account, ranging from ongoing conflict, to the acceptance of the rights of others and societal safety. It thus tries to go beyond a negative conception of peace as non-war, to show that qualitative peace includes a broad number of dimensions.
The Normandy Index, prepared yearly by the European Parliament together with the IEP, adopts an approach tailored by and to the action of the European Union, assessing the overall state of ‘conflictuality’ of a given entity as a product of factors linked to the main threats identified by the EU in its external action strategy. As described above, the EU Global Strategy identifies the following 11 threats as the main current challenges to peace and security: terrorism, energy security, fragile states, hybrid threats, violent conflicts, trans-border crime, economic crises, cybersecurity, weapons of mass destruction (WMDs), climate change, and disinformation.
The index uses nine of these eleven threats as factors assigned equal weight in the final result for 137 UN countries (with the EU-27 being counted as one). The Normandy Index adds to the 10 above-mentioned factors the quality of the democratic process, as democracy support is a core dimension of EU external action. In addition, as analysed in following sections, there is a strong correlation between weak democratic processes and threats to peace and security. The Normandy Index is therefore a tool to be used by EU policy-makers to assess countries most at risk in the world according to the EU’s Global Strategy and target EU action. It is not a ranking of countries according to their peacefulness but a ranking of specific threats to peace per country.

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