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This tag is associated with 85 posts

Illicit small arms and light weapons: International and EU action

Written by Carmen-Cristina Cîrlig Small arms and light weapons (SALW) are the main tools used in today’s conflicts, be they inter-state wars, civil wars or the actions of organised crime, and the cause of the majority of deaths from armed violence in the world – of combatants, but also, and mainly, of civilians. As past efforts have mostly been … Continue reading

Medicinal products in the European Union: The legal framework for medicines for human use

Written by Nicole Scholz A high level of protection for human health is a central objective of European Union (EU) public health policy. To guarantee this objective, high standards of quality and safety for medicinal products are essential. Although pharmaceuticals are primarily regulated at the national level by the Member States, there is a large body of EU legislation … Continue reading

Safeguarding biological diversity: EU policy and international agreements

Updated on 12 May 2016 Written by Didier Bourguignon, Biodiversity – the diversity of life on earth at all levels – is declining, mainly as a result of human-induced pressures such as over-exploitation of natural resources, loss of viable habitats, pollution, climate change or invasive alien species. Globally, the decline of habitats and species continues, … Continue reading

Higher education in the EU: Approaches, issues and trends

Written by Ivana Katsarova The performance and quality of higher education has become a vital sign of a country’s capacity to foster its future economic development. The race for talent is currently open on a global scale. In spite of the fact that the United States is still the global leader with 17% of international … Continue reading

European Year for Active Ageing and Solidarity between Generations (2012): European Implementation Assessment

Written by Jan Tymowski Executive summary Viewing an ageing European society as both a challenge and an opportunity, the European Union declared 2012 as the European Year for Active Ageing and Solidarity between Generations. The Decision adopted by the European Parliament and Council in September 2011 established the objectives, content of measures, and the budget for this initiative. … Continue reading

Fundamental Rights in the European Union : The role of the Charter after the Lisbon Treaty

Written by Francesca Ferraro The European Union, like its Member States, has to comply with the principle of the rule of law and respect for fundamental rights when fulfilling the tasks set out in the Treaties. These legal obligations have been framed progressively by the case law of the European Court of Justice. The Court … Continue reading

Negotiating a new UN climate agreement: Challenges on the road to Paris

Written by Gregor Erbach A new international agreement to combat climate change is due to be adopted in December 2015 at the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The current climate agreements commit developed countries to take climate action, but not developing countries, some of … Continue reading

The Russian economy: Will Russia ever catch up?

Written by Martin Russell Over the past 25 years, Russia has undergone dramatic economic changes, with the difficult reforms and catastrophic economic collapse of the 1990s, the boom years of the new century, the global economic crisis and the current downturn. Despite all these developments, many of the structural economic challenges faced by Russia remain unchanged since Soviet … Continue reading

Implementation of the European Citizens’ Initiative: The experience of the first three years

Written by Irmgard Anglmayer Revised in April 2015 The European Citizens’ Initiative (ECI) has been in operation since April 2012. Observers have identified a number of shortcomings in its implementation, which impact negatively on the effectiveness and acceptance of this relatively new instrument of transnational participatory democracy. Against this background, stakeholders are calling for simplification and … Continue reading

The monetary policy of the ECB: Strategy, conduct and trends

Written by Angelos Delivorias According to Article 127(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, ‘the primary objective of the European System of Central Banks [i.e. the European Central Bank and the national central banks of all EU Member States] shall be to maintain price stability.’ To pursue that objective, the European … Continue reading

European Union tax policy – Background to key issues in the debate on taxation matters in the EU

Written by Cécile Remeur The current EU taxation framework leaves Member States free to decide on their tax systems provided they comply with European Union (EU) rules. Those rules are adopted unanimously by the Council. The development of EU tax provisions is linked with the completion and proper functioning of the single market, with indirect taxes … Continue reading

Economic significance of trade in services: Background to negotiations on a Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA)

Written by Wilhelm Schöllmann Fifty-one members of the World Trade Organization (WTO): Australia, Canada, Chile, Chinese Taipei, Colombia, Costa Rica, Hong Kong, Iceland, Israel, Japan, Liechtenstein, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, South Korea, Switzerland, Turkey and the United States, together with the European Union and its 28 Member States – have been trying … Continue reading

Les productions “bio” et l’Union européenne

Écrit par Jean Weissenberger L’agriculture biologique se veut respectueuse des cycles naturels, en excluant le recours aux organismes génétiquement modifiés, en limitant l’usage de produits chimiques de synthèse et en assurant le bien-être des animaux. La production biologique, règlementée et soutenue au niveau de l’UE, est contrôlée, certifiée et labellisée. Le cahier des charges s’adapte … Continue reading

Le défi de la coordination des politiques européennes de développement

Written by Marta Latek Le poids que représente pour les pays en développement la gestion d’un nombre croissant de (petits) projets, combiné avec un nombre grandissant de donateurs de plus en plus divers – “la fragmentation de l’aide” – est largement reconnu comme nuisible à l’efficacité de l’aide voire à sa légitimité. Les instances internationales … Continue reading

EU competence in private law

Written by Rafał Mańko The notion of private law, as opposed to public law, has a long tradition and is of great importance in most EU Member States. National private law is seen as the constitution of civil society and enjoys a high degree of democratic legitimacy with regard to social justice. However, that distinction … Continue reading

Disenfranchisement of EU citizens resident abroad – Situation in national and European elections in EU Member States

Written by Eva-Maria Poptcheva Updated on 30 June 2015 The right to vote is a fundamental one and of utmost importance for the democratic legitimacy of any public power. Six EU Member States deprive their nationals permanently resident abroad of the right to vote in national parliamentary elections. They also deprive such citizens residing in … Continue reading

La violence à l’égard des enfants dans l’UE: État des lieux

Written by Anna Dimitrova-Stull This In-Depth Analysis is available in 2 other language versions: Violence towards children in the EU : Current situation Gewalt gegen Kinder in der EU : Wo stehen wir heute? L’enfant est un être humain avec des droits et une dignité. Les droits des enfants sont des droits humains. En raison de leur fragilité et vulnérabilité, les … Continue reading

European Development Fund – Joint development cooperation and the EU budget: out or in?

Written by Alessandro D’Alfonso As a major international actor in development cooperation, the EU has in the European Development Fund (EDF) its largest geographic instrument in this policy area, with €30.5 billion allocated to the 11th EDF for 2014-20. In recent years, around 30% of total EU spending on external assistance, including spending on both development and other categories, … Continue reading

Urban mobility: Shifting towards sustainable transport systems

Written by Ariane Debyser Urban mobility is confronted by many challenges, the key one being traffic congestion: urbanisation and a high dependence on cars having led to congestion in urban areas. Traffic congestion adversely impacts the urban environment itself in a direct way, leading to poor air quality, noise emissions, high levels of CO2 and … Continue reading

Overcoming Transatlantic differences on intellectual property: IPR and the TTIP negotiations

Recent studies demonstrate the important contribution of intellectual property rights (IPR) to the American and EU economies. Royalties and licence fees based on IPR figure high among the exports of both, and applications, and grants, for IPR protection made by Europeans in the US and vice-versa represent an important share of the totals. The differences … Continue reading

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