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This tag is associated with 80 posts

Fundamental Rights in the European Union : The role of the Charter after the Lisbon Treaty

Written by Francesca Ferraro The European Union, like its Member States, has to comply with the principle of the rule of law and respect for fundamental rights when fulfilling the tasks set out in the Treaties. These legal obligations have been framed progressively by the case law of the European Court of Justice. The Court … Continue reading

Negotiating a new UN climate agreement: Challenges on the road to Paris

Written by Gregor Erbach A new international agreement to combat climate change is due to be adopted in December 2015 at the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The current climate agreements commit developed countries to take climate action, but not developing countries, some of … Continue reading

The Russian economy: Will Russia ever catch up?

Written by Martin Russell Over the past 25 years, Russia has undergone dramatic economic changes, with the difficult reforms and catastrophic economic collapse of the 1990s, the boom years of the new century, the global economic crisis and the current downturn. Despite all these developments, many of the structural economic challenges faced by Russia remain unchanged since Soviet … Continue reading

Implementation of the European Citizens’ Initiative: The experience of the first three years

Written by Irmgard Anglmayer Revised in April 2015 The European Citizens’ Initiative (ECI) has been in operation since April 2012. Observers have identified a number of shortcomings in its implementation, which impact negatively on the effectiveness and acceptance of this relatively new instrument of transnational participatory democracy. Against this background, stakeholders are calling for simplification and … Continue reading

The monetary policy of the ECB: Strategy, conduct and trends

Written by Angelos Delivorias According to Article 127(1) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, ‘the primary objective of the European System of Central Banks [i.e. the European Central Bank and the national central banks of all EU Member States] shall be to maintain price stability.’ To pursue that objective, the European … Continue reading

European Union tax policy – Background to key issues in the debate on taxation matters in the EU

Written by Cécile Remeur The current EU taxation framework leaves Member States free to decide on their tax systems provided they comply with European Union (EU) rules. Those rules are adopted unanimously by the Council. The development of EU tax provisions is linked with the completion and proper functioning of the single market, with indirect taxes … Continue reading

Economic significance of trade in services: Background to negotiations on a Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA)

Written by Wilhelm Schöllmann Fifty-one members of the World Trade Organization (WTO): Australia, Canada, Chile, Chinese Taipei, Colombia, Costa Rica, Hong Kong, Iceland, Israel, Japan, Liechtenstein, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, South Korea, Switzerland, Turkey and the United States, together with the European Union and its 28 Member States – have been trying … Continue reading

Les productions “bio” et l’Union européenne

Écrit par Jean Weissenberger L’agriculture biologique se veut respectueuse des cycles naturels, en excluant le recours aux organismes génétiquement modifiés, en limitant l’usage de produits chimiques de synthèse et en assurant le bien-être des animaux. La production biologique, règlementée et soutenue au niveau de l’UE, est contrôlée, certifiée et labellisée. Le cahier des charges s’adapte … Continue reading

Le défi de la coordination des politiques européennes de développement

Written by Marta Latek Le poids que représente pour les pays en développement la gestion d’un nombre croissant de (petits) projets, combiné avec un nombre grandissant de donateurs de plus en plus divers – “la fragmentation de l’aide” – est largement reconnu comme nuisible à l’efficacité de l’aide voire à sa légitimité. Les instances internationales … Continue reading

EU competence in private law

Written by Rafał Mańko The notion of private law, as opposed to public law, has a long tradition and is of great importance in most EU Member States. National private law is seen as the constitution of civil society and enjoys a high degree of democratic legitimacy with regard to social justice. However, that distinction … Continue reading

Disenfranchisement of EU citizens resident abroad – Situation in national and European elections in EU Member States

Written by Eva-Maria Poptcheva Updated on 30 June 2015 The right to vote is a fundamental one and of utmost importance for the democratic legitimacy of any public power. Six EU Member States deprive their nationals permanently resident abroad of the right to vote in national parliamentary elections. They also deprive such citizens residing in … Continue reading

La violence à l’égard des enfants dans l’UE: État des lieux

Written by Anna Dimitrova-Stull This In-Depth Analysis is available in 2 other language versions: Violence towards children in the EU : Current situation Gewalt gegen Kinder in der EU : Wo stehen wir heute? L’enfant est un être humain avec des droits et une dignité. Les droits des enfants sont des droits humains. En raison de leur fragilité et vulnérabilité, les … Continue reading

European Development Fund – Joint development cooperation and the EU budget: out or in?

Written by Alessandro D’Alfonso As a major international actor in development cooperation, the EU has in the European Development Fund (EDF) its largest geographic instrument in this policy area, with €30.5 billion allocated to the 11th EDF for 2014-20. In recent years, around 30% of total EU spending on external assistance, including spending on both development and other categories, … Continue reading

Urban mobility: Shifting towards sustainable transport systems

Written by Ariane Debyser Urban mobility is confronted by many challenges, the key one being traffic congestion: urbanisation and a high dependence on cars having led to congestion in urban areas. Traffic congestion adversely impacts the urban environment itself in a direct way, leading to poor air quality, noise emissions, high levels of CO2 and … Continue reading

Overcoming Transatlantic differences on intellectual property: IPR and the TTIP negotiations

Recent studies demonstrate the important contribution of intellectual property rights (IPR) to the American and EU economies. Royalties and licence fees based on IPR figure high among the exports of both, and applications, and grants, for IPR protection made by Europeans in the US and vice-versa represent an important share of the totals. The differences … Continue reading

Unconventional gas and oil in North America

The ‘shale revolution’ Over the past decade, the United States and Canada have experienced spectacular growth in the production of unconventional fossil fuels, notably shale gas and tight oil, thanks to technological innovations such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing (fracking). Economic impacts This new supply of energy has led to falling gas prices and … Continue reading

Freedom of movement and residence of EU citizens : Access to social benefits

Over the past few decades, the focus around issues of free movement has shifted away from workers and towards EU citizenship, whereby worker status is no longer the only route opening access for EU citizens to social benefits in a host Member State. The two EU enlargements in 2004 and 2007, as well as the … Continue reading

EU competition policy: key to a fair Single Market

The aim of EU competition policy is to safeguard the correct functioning of the Single Market. In essence it ensures that enterprises have the possibility to compete on equal terms on the markets of all Member States. Competition policy encompasses a wide range of areas: antitrust and cartels, merger examination, state aid, the liberalisation of … Continue reading

L’engagement du secteur privé dans la coopération au développement: Les formes de coopération public-privé

Que ce soit par l’intermédiaire d’entreprises dans le cadre des partenariats public-privé mis en oeuvre au niveau local ou de grandes fondations philanthropiques au sein de fonds multidonateurs, le secteur privé a investi la scène de la coopération au développement, longtemps réservée aux acteurs publics (gouvernements et institutions internationales). Cette mutation, reflétée par une croissance … Continue reading

How the EU budget is financed – The “own resources” system and the debate on its reform

The system of “own resources” ensures the EU is able to finance its policies. In 2012, total EU revenue amounted to €139.5 billion. Successive reforms have determined the system’s current configuration, which relies on three key streams of revenue: traditional own resources (mainly customs duties); a resource based on value added tax (VAT); and a resource related to Member … Continue reading

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