Negotiations over ACTA began in 2006, with the purpose of establishing international standards for intellectual property rights enforcement, both for physical and digital goods. It came to the fore only in 2008 – in the form of leaks rather than official disclosures – when it became apparent that ACTA was intended, among other things, to cover infringements of copyright through internet use. In 2011, the signature of the agreement by the EU and 22 of its Member States resulted in widespread protests across Europe. MEP Kader Arif (S&D, France) resigned as European Parliament (EP) rapporteur after qualifying the whole process as a ‘masquerade’. Finally, the EP rejected ACTA in 2012, thus preventing the agreement from entering into force in the EU. Once it has been ratified by six signatories, its implementation will take effect. As of June 2015, it has only been ratified by Japan.