There are significant differences among EU countries. For instance, in France (where the increasing trend of HSR demand has been the most pronounced) HSR passenger kilometres rose from almost 15 billion to 51 billion between 1990 and 2012. That said, since 2008, HSR demand in France has weakened slightly, which is also true for Spain, Portugal, Belgium and the Netherlands. In Germany, the impact of HSR has been sizeable but less impressive than in France: in 2012, its HSR demand was more than 24 billion pkm, double the amount in 1999. The sharpest increase in HSR demand was in Spain, where it registered five-fold growth between 2005 and 2010. Nevertheless, Spain started at very low levels and, like Italy, has more modest absolute levels of pkm travelled.