Freight services have been fully open to competition since January 2007, and
international passenger services as of January 2010. But, as observed the Commission
in its 2013 assessment, domestic passenger services by rail remained, with some
exceptions (Germany, Italy, Sweden and the UK), largely closed. Yet, these markets
represent more than 94% of all rail passenger-kilometres (pkm) in the EU and are still strongholds of national incumbents.