Individual EU Member States’ contributions to UN missions consist of both capabilities and funding. In August 2016, the UN reported 100 950 persons deployed on UN peace operations. EU Member States, with the exception of Luxembourg and Malta, were collectively contributing 5 549 persons or 5.5 % of the overall international contribution to UN missions, distributed among EU Member States as shown in Figure 1.
In 2015, at the Leaders’ Summit on UN Peacekeeping, European Council President Donald Tusk called for the strengthening of EU-UN cooperation on crisis management, while stating that, collectively, EU Member States represent the main financial contributor to UN peacekeeping. The EU Member States’ cumulative contribution is around 40 % of the total UN peacekeeping budget, with the five largest EU Member States (Germany, France, UK, Italy and Spain) contributing over 28 % of the UN peacekeeping budget for the 2013-2015 period. This confirms expert assessments that Member States are currently more inclined to contribute financially rather than in personnel numbers to UN missions. Additionally, several CSDP operations/missions either acted as ‘bridging missions’ until a UN operation was set up (e.g. EUFOR RCA), were conducted in parallel to and in close cooperation with a UN operation (e.g. EUSEC RD Congo; the first UN/EU pre-deployment assessment mission in Mali which evaluated the Malian security sector), or were set up as a follow-up to a UN operation (e.g. EUPM BiH).