With the exception of Belgium, regional parliaments do not play a major role in the ratification procedure of IAs, other than through their seats in second chambers. In Belgium, an agreement needs to be approved by all parliaments concerned. That means that, for Belgium, when all levels are concerned, the agreement needs to be approved by eight parliaments. In other Member States with regional parliaments, their approval is not needed for the ratification of IAs and involvement of regions is limited mainly to negotiations (e.g. Portugal and Spain). Belgian regions and communities can conclude their own treaties in fields within their competences. In Germany and Austria, regions (Länder) can conclude IAs on their own, with the federal government’s approval. Similarly, in Spain and Italy, in areas falling within their responsibility, regions can enter into IAs with foreign states. In the UK, regional parliaments have no role in IAs.
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