Almost half of China’s defensive cases have focused on trade remedies, with the Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (SCM) Agreement and the Anti-Dumping (AD) Agreement having been invoked either separately or together (AD+SCM). The remainder includes cases brought under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement, the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and most recently the Agreement on Agriculture (AA) involving a dispute still at the consultation stage in November 2016.
China’s 13 offensive cases have concentrated even more on trade remedies in an effort to counter the application of EU and US trade defence instruments (TDIs) on Chinese exports. They also include some GATT cases and one case under the Safeguards Agreement. The breakdown of defensive and offensive cases, as displayed in Figure 2, shows that frictions with China have occurred by far more often in goods trade than in services trade, since the latter still represents a fairly small figure (US$9 720 billion in 2014) compared with trade in goods (US$38 093 billion in 2014) with China.