The graph illustrates the average representation of women in national parliaments in Member States and in the EP. The line for national parliaments up to 1996 is illustrative only, as data are available for only some Member States. A notable increase in the percentage of women in national parliaments can be seen in the mid-2000s, which could be the consequence of the introduction of electoral gender quotas in several Member States around this time (France, Belgium, Portugal, Spain).
Women in the European Parliament, EP Equality and Diversity Unit, 2018
Women in national parliaments, IPU (as of 1 December 2018).