For the first objective – promotion of a nuclear safety culture – the specific measures are support for regulatory bodies and technical support organisations; strengthening of regulatory frameworks for review, assessment, licensing and oversight of nuclear power plants and installations; promotion of regulatory frameworks providing protection against ionising radiation from radioactive materials; putting in place procedures to prevent accidents; and support for practical protective measures to reduce the risk of workers and the general public being exposed to radiation.
Examples of such projects in the 2016 AAP include a project to enhance the capabilities of the Iranian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (EU budget contribution: €5 million) and a project to enhance emergency preparedness and response for radiological and nuclear emergencies in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries through regional cooperation and technical support for decision making (EU budget contribution: €1 million). Some examples from the 2015 AAP are a project to enhance the capabilities of the Armenian Nuclear Regulatory Authority to prepare for and respond to a nuclear or radiological emergency (EU budget contribution: €1 million), and a project to strengthen the capacity of the Belarusian Nuclear Regulatory Authority MES/Gosatomnadzor (EU budget contribution: €1 million).
For the second objective – responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste – the specific measures are support for regulatory bodies, technical support organisations and strengthening of the regulatory framework; development of strategies and frameworks for safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste; and development of strategies for decommissioning existing installations and former nuclear sites, and recovery and management of radioactive material at sea. In the 2016 AAP, one such project is the EU contribution of €40 million to the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development’s (EBRD) Chernobyl Shelter Fund, and in the 2015 AAP, measures for the management and remediation of high risk uranium legacy sites in Central Asia (EU contribution: €8 million).
For the third objective – putting in place frameworks for the application of effective safeguards for nuclear material in third countries – the specific measures are to introduce methodologies and share technology and approaches enabling implementation of nuclear safeguards, including for accounting and control of fissile material. In the 2015 AAP, measures aimed at achieving this objective include a project to transfer EU nuclear safeguards methodology to INSC beneficiary countries, particularly China and countries in Africa (EU contribution: €5 million).