The INSC was created to fund EU efforts to promote nuclear safety, protection against radiation, and effective safeguards for the management of nuclear material in countries outside the EU. The INSC’s pre-2014 forerunners were aimed at countries in the EU’s eastern neighbourhood, coming in response to concerns about a repeat of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster in the post-Soviet and post-Warsaw Pact countries. Under the current INSC, accession and European neighbourhood policy countries still take priority, but all third countries are eligible for support. To this end, the EU also uses the INSC to cooperate on projects with the International Atomic Energy Agency and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. High-income countries are typically ineligible for direct financial support via the instrument, with cooperation limited to stakeholder peer learning, but exceptions can be made in such crises as a major nuclear accident.