Legal provisions regarding the acquisition of citizenship after birth on the basis of residence (naturalisation) are generally complex and cumbersome. We can distinguish between ordinary naturalisation – when the primary grounds of acquisition of citizenship is a certain period of residence in the country, and special naturalisation – when the acquisition of citizenship is based on other considerations, such as family links, ethno-cultural connections or special contributions.
The minimum period of residence required for naturalisation in EU countries ranges from 3 to 10 years (see Figure 2). It should be noted that this requirement is often qualified, meaning that only certain types of residence (permanent, continuous, etc.) may count for naturalisation purposes.