Heading 1 represents 14.7 % of the MFF proposal. It covers four policy areas: (1) research and innovation, (2) European strategic investments, (3) single market and (4) space. Horizon Europe funding (currently Horizon 2020) would increase by 29 % and be, by far, the biggest programme under heading 1, followed by the European Space Programme, with a budget of €14.2 billion (+26 %). Several other programmes would increase significantly in comparison with the current period, for example the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) (+81 %), the digital strand of the Connecting Europe Facility (+166 %), and the customs programme (+57 %). The margin provided for within heading 1 is relatively large, and amounts to €10.8 billion, or 6.5 % of the heading allocation.
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