For the expenditure side of the EU budget, the European Commission has proposed an MFF for 2021-2027 totalling €1 134 583 in commitments, and €1 104 805 in payments (2018 prices). Proposed commitments are equivalent to 1.11 %, and proposed payments to 1.08 %, of the EU-27’s GNI. Superficially, this amounts to an increase on the 2014-2020 MFF, which is an estimated 1.02 % of EU-28 GNI (commitments), but a number of factors make comparisons difficult. To begin with, the Commission’s proposed new MFF would incorporate the European Development Fund for the first time. Additionally, the United Kingdom’s expected withdrawal from the EU means that the next MFF will be for a Union of 27 countries. A smaller EU means a smaller GNI, affecting how the EU budget measures up in relative terms. Depending on one’s perspective, the proposal can be seen as either an increase or a decrease on the current MFF. What is clear, however, is that the proposal is significantly less than the 1.3 % of GNI called for by Parliament.