Resource productivity is an indicator for the efficiency of material use. It is measured as the ratio between gross domestic product (GDP) and domestic material consumption. As shown in Figure 3 below, resource productivity in the EU increased by 38.8 % between 2000 and 2016, although this increase is partly attributable to the economic crisis and the subsequent fall in domestic material consumption since 2007. Despite the decline in domestic material consumption since 2007, GDP has nevertheless continued to grow. This suggests that the EU has partly decoupled economic growth from resource use. Like material consumption, resource productivity also significantly varies between Member States, although it has been improving in nearly all of them.