At societal level, tax revenue, overall economic performance and social cohesion are affected by these shortcomings. Based on the identified gaps and barriers, a conceptual framework for the impacts of discrimination has been defined (Figure 2 above). This latter presents four possible impact channels, which were subsequently monetised into i) lost earnings for individuals, and ii) lost GDP for society as a whole. A large proportion of the quantifiable damage is due to violence against women. The study estimates the overall social and individual cost of violence against women to be around €230 billion per year, including a direct GDP loss of some €30 billion and, the cost of increased use of the criminal and civil justice systems of €34 billion. For certain grounds (such as race and ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation and age), robust quantification of the impacts proved to be difficult to establish, due to a lack of systematic data. Nevertheless, discrimination based on these grounds exists, and qualitatively and quantitatively affects people’s daily lives.
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