In November 2018, the Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) published a report analysing data on anti-Semitism in the EU between 2007 and 2017. The report established that there were large gaps in Member States’ data collection and disparities in the data they collect. It also showed that Holocaust denial is on the rise in the EU: in 2017, the FRA reported 12 such cases, as compared to 4 in 2007.
The European Commission’s December 2018 Eurobarometer 484 on perceptions of anti-Semitism analysed three aspects of Holocaust denial: the awareness of legislation penalising Holocaust denial (Figure 1), Holocaust denial as a major problem and a manifestation of anti-Semitism (Figure 2), and teaching about the Holocaust in schools (Map 1). Figure 1 shows that fewer than half of respondents are aware that Holocaust denial is criminalised. Only one in five is sure about it.