Figure 3 shows that EU imports of medical products are highly concentrated. In each product category as few as five countries provide at least 72 % of EU imports. In addition, just four countries, namely Switzerland, the US, the UK, and China, provide between 65 % (medical equipment) and 76 % (pharmaceuticals) of EU imports. It is worth noting that the UK and Switzerland are not subject to export restrictions from the EU. Exports are more dispersed and although the four countries just mentioned are significant export destinations, Russia ranks among the EU’s five largest export destinations in all four categories. Finally, as depicted in Figure 4, there is an overall growing trend in imports and exports, and China has been taking a growing share in imports of medical equipment. Interestingly, the 2008 crisis had an insignificant impact on the upward trends.
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