In 2018, 3.8 % (8.7 million) of all those employed worked in the cultural sector (see Figure 4), ranging between 5.6 % in Estonia, 5.3 % in Luxembourg and 5.2 % in Malta, and 1.6% in Romania, 2.7 % in Bulgaria and 2.8 % in Slovakia. However, the proportion of self-employed people is more than double the average rate in the EU: self-employed people accounted for almost 14 % of total employment in the EU-28 and more than 30 % of cultural employment in 2018. In the Netherlands, Germany and France, the self-employed were about three times more numerous in the cultural sector than in total employment (see Figure 5).
Self-employed in cultural employment and total employment, in %
European Parliamentary Research Service
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