In the case of young learners, parents must take on an even more active role in their children’s education. However, many parents are juggling considerably as they contend with child supervision, work duties and chores (figure 5). Some authorities provide parents and caregivers with resources. Italy is offering parents online courses on how to manage their relationship with their children as learners during confinement. Spain is using a variety of communication platforms and apps (e.g. Edugestio) through which teachers can communicate with parents and caregivers to build the learning process with them. The European safer internet centre has published a set of resources, localised help and advice by country, for parents and carers who must safeguard their children from online threats, now that they are spending even more time online.