The common foreign and security policy (CFSP) is intergovernmental in nature and the part of the CFSP that is reflected in and financed from the EU budget (Heading 4), based on Council decisions, refers to the associated administrative and operational expenditure. As the EU budget cannot finance expenditure with military and defence implications (Article 41(2) TEU), it covers civilian missions, EU Special Representatives and measures supporting non-proliferation and disarmament.
Figure 2 – Financial programming of Heading 4 ‘Global Europe’ instruments 2014 – 2020
Data source: 2019 annual management and performance report for the EU Budget, European Commission, 2020.
‘Global Europe’ also contains lending covered by the Guarantee Fund for external actions (EIB external lending, Macro-Financial Assistance and EURATOM loans) (see the section on ELM below).