The EU and its Member States are all net importers of energy, with more than half of the EU’s energy needs met by imports. Russia was the leading supplier of the main fossil fuels to the EU (oil, gas, coal) over the 2010-2020 period. Europe’s dependency on Russian supplies of oil and gas is harder to break than coal, especially in those Member States whose energy infrastructure is almost entirely set up to receive supplies from Russia. Natural gas is more difficult to transport and store than crude oil, so diversifying gas supplies is one of the biggest hurdles the EU has to face in the coming years.
EU dependency on Russia in gross available energy
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