The unpaid care penalty is significant – it is equivalent to 66 % of the EU’s public expenditure on childcare and long-term care. Figure 3 shows a breakdown of the penalty. Its largest driver is the lower rate of employment among women owing to unpaid care work (58 %), followed by the higher rate of part-time as opposed to full-time work (33 %).
Drivers of the unpaid care penalty: Labour market indicators of women as compared with men
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