Other countries, such as Croatia, Cyprus, Austria, Slovenia, and Finland required some categories of workers to provide a vaccination, recovery, or test certificate to access the workplace. Similarly, Denmark and Luxembourg allowed employers to impose such a requirement for their employees.
This kind of certificate has also been imposed on the wider public in some Member States. In order to control infections and boost vaccination uptake, a majority of the EU27 have introduced a so-called ‘COVID 19 certificate’ that would be required in order to access certain public places, which consisted of proof that a person has either been vaccinated against COVID 19, recovered from COVID 19, or received a negative test result. As shown in Figure 10, COVID 19 certificates have been implemented in almost all Member States, also facilitated by the development of a common ‘EU digital COVID 19 certificate’ that fostered the interoperability of these certificates within the EU.