EU agencies operate under indirect management, meaning the Commission delegates budget implementation to those agencies. The total EU contribution from the 2014-2020 MFF to Frontex increased from the initial €628 to €1 638 million, and to Europol from €654 to €753 million.
Funding tools for other policy areas inside the Union may also concern measures relating to borders, such as the €0.55 billion Customs 2020 programme and the Horizon 2020 framework programme for research and innovation, whose secure societies strand has a budget of around €1.7 billion for 2014-2020 and finances, among other things, activities to improve border security. Copernicus, the EU earth-observation system, offers a specific service for security applications, which provides information in response to security challenges with a view to supporting relevant EU policies. Its objective is to improve crisis prevention, preparedness and response in key areas, including border and maritime surveillance.