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Christian Salm

This tag is associated with 13 posts

Jacques Delors: Architect of the modern European Union

The consensus among most historians of European integration and political scientists is that Jacques Delors, who served as President of the European Commission from 1985 to 1995, was the most successful holder of that post to date. His agenda and accomplishments include the EU single market, the Single European Act, Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and the rapid integration of the former German Democratic Republic into the European Community. His combination of coherent agenda-setting and strong negotiating skills, acquired through long experience of trade union bargaining and years of ministerial responsibilities in turbulent times, puts Delors above other Commission Presidents, whether in terms of institutional innovation or the development of new Europe-wide policies. He also showed himself able to react swiftly to external events, notably the collapse of the Soviet bloc, whilst building Europe’s credibility on the international stage. This Briefing records Delors’ life across its crucial stages, from trade union activist, senior civil servant, French politician, and Member of the European Parliament, to the helm of the European Commission, where he left the greatest individual impact on European integration history to date. It also traces the most important ideas that guided Delors in his national and European roles. Finally, it describes the political events and key actors which made Delors’ decade in office a time of important decisions and progress in the process of European integration and, in doing so, it draws on recent academic literature and on speeches Delors gave in the European Parliament. Continue reading

Schuman Declaration: 70 years on

Aiming to secure peace in Europe after the horrors of the Second World War, the Schuman Declaration proposed cooperation among European countries in two key economic areas central to rearmament and warfare: coal and steel. Continue reading

European Parliament and the path to German reunification

This year marks the 30th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, set in motion by the events of 9 November 1989, which led to Germany’s full reunification within less than a year. Continue reading

Political Groups in the European Parliament: A historical perspective

Taking a variety of shapes and forms, European transnational party cooperation is a unique international phenomenon. This is true of transnational party cooperation both outside and within the European Parliament. Continue reading

European elections: A historical perspective

Between 23 and 26 May 2019, 427 million European Union (EU) citizens had the opportunity to vote for Members of the European Parliament. This was the ninth time that EU citizens could vote directly for the policy- and decision-makers who will represent them in EU politics. Continue reading

Forty years of direct elections to the European Parliament

Between 23 and 26 May 2019, 350 million European Union (EU) citizens have the opportunity to vote for Members of the European Parliament. It will be the ninth time that EU citizens can vote directly for the policy- and decision-makers who will represent them in EU politics. Direct elections to the European Parliament are consequently one of the most important events in the EU political cycle. Continue reading

The added value of the European Citizens’ Initiative (ECI), and its revision

Introduced by the 2007 Treaty of Lisbon and made operational on 1 April 2012 by EU Regulation No 211/2011, the European Citizens’ Initiative (ECI) is aimed at bringing the EU closer to its citizens by enabling them to invite the European Commission to make a proposal for a legal act. Continue reading

Benefits of EU international trade agreements

Trade is the EU’s most important link to the world beyond its borders. In force since the 1957 Treaty of Rome, the transition to a common EU trade policy was completed in 1968. Continue reading

The political impact of the European Parliament in the 1980s

Written by Christian Salm, Research on the history of the EU has mainly covered the impact of the nation states and their governments on the European integration process. Consequently, historical research on the role of the EU’s supranational institutions has been neglected. There are only a few exceptions where historical studies reconstruct the influence of … Continue reading

EU support for education: Improving young people’s chances on the job market

Written by Christian Salm and Cornelia Klugman, The EU’s ERASMUS+ programme is investing €14.7 billion in education (2014-2019). ERASMUS+ will enable 4 million young Europeans to study or learn abroad. Experience abroad increases young people’s chances on the job market and reduces their risk of unemployment. Support for education, training and youth in Europe School … Continue reading

Impact of the ECSC Common Assembly on the politics, negotiation and content of the Rome Treaties

Written by Christian Salm, As the historical framework for the present-day European Union (EU), the Treaties of Rome, signed in March 1957 and establishing the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom), are among the most important treaties of the European integration process. The failure to set up a … Continue reading

EU Research Policy: Tackling the major challenges facing European society

Written by Christian Salm, 2014 – 2020, EU funds for research and innovation near €120 billion. €31 billion of EU funds are set aside for research into societal challenges (2014 – 2020) A fully established European Research Area will generate annual gains of €16 billion. A European Research Area to boost growth and jobs in Europe In … Continue reading

The European Research Area in a nutshell

Written by VIncent Reillon, Thomas Zandstra and Christian Salm, The European Research Area (ERA) concept has shaped common European policy on research since 2000. However, despite positive developments in creating an integrated research area in Europe with 28 different research systems working together, the implementation of the ERA still faces challenges. Over 40 years after the … Continue reading

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