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International Relations, PUBLICATIONS

Nuclear Security Summit

Nuclear security remains a concern in today’s world; not only nuclear weapons, but also for nuclear facilities with non-belligerent objectives which can be hazardous in case of accident or malfunction. Preventing theft, sabotage, or diversion of nuclear materials for terrorist acts is also part of the nuclear security goals.
In 2010, Barack Obama, president of the United States, hosted the first biennal Nuclear Security Summit (NSS), in Washington.

Radioactive sign

@ Thomas Bethge / Fotolia

The Summit’s goal is to “draw attention, at the highest possible level, to the need to secure nuclear material and thus prevent nuclear terrorism” by bringing together the best practices and innovative approaches to nuclear security of governments, industry, and non-governmental agencies.

The Summit will maintain focus on nuclear security, and will not discuss nuclear disarmament, the pros and cons of nuclear power or protection from natural disasters.

The 2010 summit was dedicated to making political agreements between the countries; the 2012 follow-up was concerned with the progress made in implementing such agreements. The 2014 meeting in The Hague will focus on the results achieved so far, and on future measures to be taken.

This keysource gathers the most significant documents from the Nuclear Security Summit, as well as analysis and academic articles on the subject of Nuclear Security.

Overview

Summit Official Documents

Washington Work plan, Washington, 13 April 2010
Communiqué of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit, Washington, 13 April 2010
Seoul Communiqué, Nuclear Security Summit, Seoul, 26-27 March 2012

Other official documents and Joint Statements can be found in the web page of the Nuclear Security Summit.

Nuclear Timeline: an historical overview of the continuing impact of nuclear issues in our world. Developed by The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies, 2014

U.S. Set to Co-Sponsor New Nuclear Security Initiative / Kelsey Davenport. Arms Control Association, March 14, 2014
A new initiative to be launched at this month’s nuclear security summit in The Hague will commit participating states to the “highest standards” of nuclear security.

Conventions and Treaties

Nuclear Security Recommendations on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (INFCIRC/225/revision 5), Vienna, IAEA, 2011

Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, adopted on 26 October 1979, reflecting the Amendment adopted by the States Parties to the Convention on 8 July 2005

The International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (ICSANT), United Nations, New York, 13 April 2005

Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 17 June 1994.

Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), United Nations, 1968

Stakeholders views

EU documents

EUR-Lex has a thematic file on Nuclear safety, with Legislative Instruments, and preparatory acts.

EU High Level Event on “International cooperation to enhance a worldwide nuclear security culture” Contribution to the Nuclear Security Summit 2014. European Commission and European External Action Service, March 2014

Joint Staff Working Document EU efforts to strengthen nuclear security, 19 March 2014

Council Decision issuing directives to the Commission for the negotiation of amendments to the Convention on Nuclear Safety, March 04, 2014

European Parliament legislative resolution of 19 November 2013 on the proposal for a Council regulation establishing an Instrument for Nuclear Safety Cooperation, Tuesday, 19 November 2013

Union support for the activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency in the areas of nuclear security and verification and in the framework of the implementation of the EU Strategy against Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, 16 October 2013

European Parliament resolution of 17 January 2013 on the Recommendations of the Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference regarding the establishment of a Middle East free of weapons of mass destruction (2012/2890(RSP)), January 17, 2013

New cooperation mechanism established between the EU and the IAEA, January 25, 2013

The Council of The European Union, Final Report of the Ad Hoc Group on Nuclear Security (10616/12), May 31, 2012

European Parliament resolution of 14 December 2010 on strengthening chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear security in the European Union – an EU CBRN Action Plan, December 14, 2010

United Nations

UNSC Resolution 1540 adopted by the Security Council at its 4956th meeting, on 28 April 2004. Following the adoption of the resolution, the United Nations created the 1540 Committee.

UNSC Resolution 1373 adopted by the Security Council at its 4385th meeting, on 28 September 2001.

Analysis

Beyond Nuclear Summitry: The Role of the IAEA in Nuclear Security Diplomacy After 2016 / Trevor Findlay, Harvard Kennedy School. March 11, 2014
This paper will assume that there is no appetite for continuing biennial summit meetings dedicated to nuclear security after 2016 and that the days of nuclear security summitry, at least for the moment, are numbered.

The nuclear security summit – Part I, and Part II / Tariq Osman Hyder. The Nation, 16, 17 March 2014
(…) the future of the NSS process is uncertain. However, its impact will remain in heightened recognition of the need for taking all steps necessary to improve the multidimensional aspects of nuclear security brought about by this process.

Countering Nuclear Terrorism : A Conventional Response
European journal of international law = Journal européen de droit international 2013, v. 18, n. 2, p. 225-224

Multilateral cooperation and the prevention of nuclear terrorism : pragmatism over idealism International affairs 2012, v. 88, n. 2, p. 349-368
The politically most notable initiative so far has been President Barack Obama’s Nuclear Security Summit (NSS) of April 2010, which raised international awareness of the nuclear terror threat and sought to strengthen preventive efforts in this area.

UNSCR 1540 and the EU: reinforcing national responsibilities / Charlotte Beaucillon,
In: ISS Policy Brief n 10, 18 December 2012 , 4 p. , 2012
In line with the European Security Strategy (ESS), the WMD Strategy foresees EU support to the existing multilateral treaty system.

Managing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Policy Implications of Expanding Global Access to Nuclear Power / Mary Beth Nikitin, et al. Congressional Research Service RL34234, October 19, 2012
A major concern about the global expansion of nuclear power is the potential spread of nuclear fuel cycle technology—particularly uranium enrichment and spent fuel reprocessing—that could be used for nuclear weapons.

The future of nuclear energy to 2030 and its implications for safety, security and nonproliferation: overview / Trevor Findlay ; Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) , 2010
The report, which is the culmination of a three-and-a-half year study by CIGI, identifies key drivers that are spurring existing and aspiring nuclear states to develop nuclear energy and the constraints that will limit a “revival.”

Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems: Further Enhancing the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Regime , In: IAEA , 2010
The conference brought together senior nuclear safety, radiation safety and security regulators from around the world to discuss how to improve regulatory effectiveness to ensure protection of the public and the environment.

Other International initiatives

The Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) is an international partnership of 85 nations.

The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a group of nuclear supplier countries that seeks to contribute to nuclear safety through the implementation of two sets of Guidelines for nuclear exports and nuclear-related exports.

The World Institute for Nuclear Security (WINS) was established as an International Non-Governmental Organization, September 28th, 2008. It focuses on improving security of nuclear and high hazard radioactive materials.

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