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International Relations, PUBLICATIONS

The INF Treaty and European defence [What Think Tanks are thinking]

Written by Marcin Grajewski,

Nuclear crisis, Russia and USA break the INF Treaty #2

© Negro Elkha / Fotolia

The United States has announced its withdrawal from the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, sparking fears of a fresh nuclear arms race between Russia, the United States and China. The collapse of the 1987 agreement, which bans land-based missiles with a range between 500 kilometres and 5,500 kilometres, has further exacerbated existing concerns about European security caused by the uncertain commitment of US President Donald Trump to the NATO military alliance.

President Trump’s approach to security, coupled with Russia’s assertive behaviour, have prompted the European Union to put forward initiatives to increase its military capabilities. President Trump started a six-month withdrawal process from the Treaty this month, blaming it on Russian violations. Hopes are not high that an agreement can be negotiated during this period. Furthermore, German Chancellor Angela Merkel called on China to join the INF treaty during the 2019 Munich Security Conferece, but China has argued that this would place unfair limits on their military, and refused.

This note offers links to commentaries and studies on the collapse of the INF Treaty and European defence. Earlier papers on defence can be found in a previous edition of ‘What Think Tanks are Thinking’, published in July 2018.

The INF treaty

The end of an era? The INF Treaty, New START, and the future of strategic stability
Brookings Institutions, February 2019

Europe and the end of the INF Treaty
Carnegie Europe, February 2019

Q&A on the US withdrawal from the INF Treaty
American Enterprise Institute, February 2019

The end of the INF Treaty is looming: A new nuclear arms race can still be prevented
Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, January 2019

The INF quandary: Preventing a nuclear arms race in Europe. Perspectives from the US, Russia and Germany
Belfer Centre for Science and International Affairs, January 2019

The ailing INF Treaty: What to know
Council on Foreign Relations, January 2019

The demise of the INF treaty: Can the EU save arms control?
Clingendael, January 2019

Der INF-Vertrag vor dem Aus – Bedrohung oder Chance für die internationale Rüstungskontrolle?
Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, December 2018

What comes after a U.S. withdrawal from the INF Treaty? The case for a NATO strategy
Center for Strategic and International Studies, February 2019

Will Europe try to save the INF Treaty?
Brookings Institution, December 2018

Dead man walking: Time to put the INF treaty to rest?
International Centre for Defence and Security, November 2018

Terminating the INF Treaty makes no sense
Cato Institute, October 2018

The crumbling architecture of arms control
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, October 2018

Other reports on European defence

Europe in 2019: A critical and transitional year
Center for Strategic and International Studies, February 2019

The way towards the European Defence Union
European Political Strategy Centre, February 2019

Strategische Autonomie Europas
Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, February 2019

Misplaced nostalgia for the old West
Carnegie Europe, February 2019

NATO at seventy: An alliance in crisis
Belfer Centre for Science and International Affairs, February 2019

The European blame game
Carnegie Europe, February 2019

Blaming Trump for their problems is the one thing Europeans can agree on
Brookings Institutions, February 2019

Poland’s short-sighted military dependence on the United States
Carnegie Europe, February 2019

America the mercenary: Trump’s plan to bill NATO
European Council on Foreign Relations, February 2019

On the up: Western defence spending in 2018
International Institute for Strategic Studies, February 2019

Pourquoi nous faut-il une armée européenne?
Une armée européenne pour faire quoi?
Une armée européenne dans quel cadre?
Une armée européenne avec qui ?
Une armée européenne sous quelle forme?
Groupe de Recherche et d’information sur la Paix et la Sécurité, January, February 2019

Fighting for Europe: European strategic autonomy and the use of force
Egmont, January 2019

The Franco-German tandem: Bridging the gap on nuclear issues
Institut Français des Relations Internationales, January 2019

1919-2019: How to make peace last? European strategy and the future of the world order
Egmont, January 2019

Contemporary deterrence: Insights and lessons from enhanced forward presence
International Centre for Defence and Security, January 2019

Eyes tight shut: European attitudes towards nuclear deterrence
European Council on Foreign Relations, December 2018

Rising tensions between the West and Russia: What role for arms control?
Clingendael, December 2018

Hybrid and transnational threats
Friends of Europe, December 2018

France and European defence: Continuity in long-term objectives, change in strategy
Finnish Institute of International Relations, December 2018

Strengthening the EU as a security actor: Citizens’ views and perspectives
Trans European Policy Studies Association, December 2018

Preparing for cyber conflict: Case studies of cyber command
International Centre for Defence and Security, December 2018

Permanent deterrence: Enhancements to the US military presence in North Central Europe
Atlantic Council, December 2018

‘Fort Trump” or bust? Poland and the future of European defence
Friends of Europe, December 2018

Strategic autonomy: Towards ‘European sovereignty’ in defence?
European Union Institute for Security Studies, November 2018

NATO priorities after the Brussels summit
Atlantic Council, November 2018

NATO nuclear sharing and the future of nuclear deterrence in Europe
The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies, November 2018

A ‘European’ Army? Eminently defensible but not probable for a long time to come
Atlantic Council, November 2018

EU-NATO relations: A long-term perspective
Egmont, November 2018

Die nachrichtendienstlichen Schnittstellen der EU-Sicherheitspolitik
Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, November 2018

Ein Europäischer Sicherheitsrat: Mehrwert für die Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik der EU?
Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, November 2018

The United States, Russia, and Europe in 2018
Center for Strategic and International Studies, November 2018

The European dimension of nuclear deterrence: French and British policies and future scenarios
Finnish Institute of International Relations, November 2018

‘Fort Trump?’ Is there added value to a permanent U.S. military base in Poland?
Center for Strategic and International Studies, November 2018

Strengthening the EU’s cyber defence capabilities
Centre for European Policy Studies, November 2018

In Sea of Azov, Russia again tests its strength
Chatham House, November 2018

European armaments standardisation
European Union Institute for Security Studies, November 2018

The erosion of strategic stability and the future of arms control in Europe
Institut Français des Relations Internationales, November 2018

Under the gun: Rearmament for arms control in Europe
European Council on Foreign Relations, November 2018

Beyond borderlands: ensuring the sovereignty of all nations of Eastern Europe
Atlantic Council, November 2018

Trump gets NATO backwards
Center for New American Security, November 2018

NATO nuclear sharing and the future of nuclear deterrence in Europe
The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies, October 2018

The challenges of NATO nuclear policy: Alliance management under the Trump administration
Finnish Institute of International Relations, October 2018

Addressing the nexus: Regional conventional arms control in a global context
OSCE Network of Think Tanks and Academic Institutions, October 2018

NATO after the Brussels summit: Bruised or emboldened?
German Marshall Fund, September 2018

Hard lessons from Brussels: The key challenges facing NATO
Institute for Foreign Affairs and Trade, September 2018

Debating security plus: Conflict, competition and cooperation in an interconnected world
Friends of Europe, September 2018

Germany and European defence cooperation: A post-Atlantic turn?
Finnish Institute of International Relations, September 2018

PESCO implementation: The next challenge
Clingendael, September 2018

Russia’s Vostok exercises were both serious planning and a show
Chatham House, September 2018

Russia and the Baltics: A testing ground for NATO–EU defence cooperation
Instituto Affari Internazionali, September 2018

PESCO and security cooperation between the EU and Turkey
Istambul Policy Centre, Instituto Affari Internazionali, September 2018

European strategic autonomy: Going it alone?
Clingendael, August 2018

EU-NATO cooperation: Distinguishing narrative from substance
Jacques Delors Institute, July 2018

Tailored assurance: Balancing deterrence and disarmament in responding to NATO-Russia tensions
Institut français des relations internationales, July 2018


Read this briefing note on ‘The INF Treaty and European defence‘ in the Think Tank pages of the European Parliament.

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