Updated on 24.10.2023.
Written by Alessandro D’Alfonso.
In 2023, the implementation of the Next Generation EU (NGEU) recovery instrument is in full swing, but with some variations across the EU. At the same time, a revision of recovery plans is ongoing, with a view to including new REPowerEU chapters and adjusting the original plans when justified. By 2026, the EU was initially projected to use some €500 billion out of the maximum allocation available (€723.8 billion) under the Recovery and Resilience Facility (RRF), the centrepiece of NGEU. Today, the use of RRF resources is likely to increase further with a renewed interest in the loan component. In particular, REPowerEU chapters are expected to reinforce the energy dimension of the recovery plans through a further €20 billion in grants and the possible mobilisation of sums still available for loans (up to €225 billion). But how is this significant amount of resources being used to meet the key objectives of the green transition, the digital transformation, resilience and inclusion?
Given the level and strategic importance of the investment involved, the European Parliament has repeatedly stressed that NGEU should be closely monitored. To contribute to the transparency of this major innovation in EU finances, the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) has created three series of briefings, respectively on individual national recovery and resilience plans (NRRPs), sectoral dimensions thereof, and governance aspects of the tools, as well as an interactive infographic. These publications provide a regularly updated overview of the progress in the implementation of NGEU resources.
The briefings in the ‘Next Generation EU (NGEU) delivery: How are the Member States doing?’ series look at the NRRPs put forward by the Member States to benefit from investment under the RRF. In a nutshell, the briefings aim to provide the essentials of each national plan in an easily accessible format. Each briefing sets out the funding each Member State can access, the country-specific challenges that the plan is designed to address, the investment and reform measures put forward by national authorities, and the Commission’s assessment of their plans. Other sections present the milestones and targets to be met and the latest state of play in the implementation, as well as a flavour of the debate individual plans have triggered. Various graphics recapitulate key data in a snapshot. The series covers all Member States and the briefings are updated regularly, at key stages throughout the lifecycle of the plans. The briefings in the series are available here: Austria; Belgium; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; Czechia; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Ireland; Italy; Latvia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Malta; Netherlands; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain, and Sweden.
In addition, a special entry in the series looks at how the European Commission assessed implementation progress in individual Member States in the framework of the 2023 European Semester, showing that the deployment of the RRF is broadly on track, but variations are emerging across the EU.
The ‘Next Generation EU (NGEU) delivery: Sectoral focus’ series analyses horizontal dimensions of the NRRPs, with a closer look at specific aspects of the six priorities of common European interest that the RRF can finance. Notably, these briefings provide an overview of how NRRPs support an individual policy area through investment and reform measures across the EU. The publications in the series are so far devoted to the following dimensions of the plans: digital, education, energy, gender, health, (digital) public services, small- and medium-sized enterprises and transport, as well as measures tackling aggressive tax planning and those against money laundering.
The ‘Next Generation EU (NGEU) delivery: Governance’ series explores how NGEU and the RRF work in practice, with a particular focus on their innovative aspects as compared to traditional EU budgetary instruments. The first briefings in this series look at governance and oversight of the RRF, its payment suspension methodology and transparency in RRF implementation.
Last but not least, EPRS weekly updates an interactive infographic on the state of play in the implementation of the EU recovery instrument, which is enriched over time with new data as implementation of the plans advances.
Don’t hesitate to return to this page, a single entry point to key EPRS publications in this area, to discover new briefings and the latest updates as we add them.