Members' Research Service By / November 18, 2021

Artificial intelligence act [EU Legislation in Progress][Policy Podcast]

AI technologies are expected to bring a wide array of economic and societal benefits to a wide range of sectors, including environment and health, the public sector, finance, mobility, home affairs and agriculture.

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Written by Tambiama Madiega (2nd edition, updated on 28.06.2023).

TThe European Commission tabled a proposal for an EU regulatory framework on artificial intelligence (AI) in April 2021. The draft AI act is the first ever attempt to enact a horizontal regulation for AI. The proposed legal framework focuses on the specific utilisation of AI systems and associated risks. The Commission proposes to establish a technology-neutral definition of AI systems in EU law and to lay down a classification for AI systems with different requirements and obligations tailored on a ‘risk-based approach’. Some AI systems presenting ‘unacceptable’ risks would be prohibited. A wide range of ‘high-risk’ AI systems would be authorised, but subject to a set of requirements and obligations to gain access to the EU market. Those AI systems presenting only ‘limited risk’ would be subject to very light transparency obligations. The Council agreed the EU Member States’ general position in December 2021. Parliament voted on its position in June 2023. EU lawmakers are now starting negotiations to finalise the new legislation, with substantial amendments to the Commission’s proposal including revising the definition of AI systems, broadening the list of prohibited AI systems, and imposing obligations on general purpose AI and generative AI models such as ChatGPT.


Proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the council laying down harmonised rules on artificial intelligence (artificial intelligence act) and amending certain Union legislative acts
Committees responsible:Internal Market and Consumer Protection (IMCO) and Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE) (jointly under Rule 58)COM(2021)206
Rapporteurs:Brando Benifei (S&D, Italy) and Dragoş Tudorache (Renew, Romania)2021/0106(COD)
Shadow rapporteurs:Deirdre Clune, Axel Voss (EPP); Petar Vitanov (S&D); Svenja Hahn, (Renew); Sergey Lagodinsky, Kim Van Sparrentak (Greens/EFA); Rob Rooken, Kosma Złotowski (ECR); Jean‑Lin Lacapelle, Jaak Madison (ID); Cornelia Ernst, Kateřina Konecna (The Left)Ordinary legislative procedure (COD)
(Parliament and Council on equal footing – formerly ‘co-decision’)
Next steps expected: Trilogue negotiations

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